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If something is last, it is the finalizer or terminating point. Nothing else will follow after something that is last. Last can apply to anything that involves a series, amount, or order. This sense of last is a superlative of late.



A last is a mechanical form shaped like a human foot.[1] It is used by shoemakers and cordwainers in the manufacture and repair of shoes. Lasts typically come in pairs and have been made from various materials, including hardwoods, cast iron, and high-density plastics.[2]

Lasts come in many styles and sizes, depending on the exact job they are designed for. Common variations include simple one-size lasts used for repairing soles and heels, durable lasts used in modern mass production, and custom-made lasts used in the making of bespoke footwear. Though a last is made approximately in the shape of a human foot, the precise shape is tailored to the kind of footwear being made. For example, a boot last would be designed to hug the instep for a close fit. Modern last shapes are typically designed using dedicated computer-aided design software.

Historically, lasts were typically made from and cast iron because these materials retain their shape, even when in contact with wet materials (like leather) and subjected to the mechanical stresses of stretching and shaping shoes on them. Today, wooden lasts are generally used only for bespoke shoemaking, particularly in Europe and North America.

The materials used in modern lasts must be strong enough to withstand the forces of mass production machinery, such as that applied by pullover machines when bottoming the shoe, and must also be able to hold tacks (known as "lasting tacks"), which are used to hold shoe parts together temporarily before the sole is added. Although hardwoods satisfy these criteria, modern lasts, especially those used by mass production factories in places such as China, are often made from high-density polyethylene plastic (HMW-HDPE), which allows for many tack holes before needing repair. Such plastics also have the benefit that they can be recycled when the last wears out.

Cordwainers, or bespoke shoemakers, often use lasts that are specifically designed to the proportions of individual customers' feet. Made from various modern materials, they don't need to withstand the pressures of mass production machinery, but they must be able to handle constant tacking and pinning, and the wet environment associated with stretching and shaping materials such as leather.

The following table shows the 100 most popular given names for male and female babies born during the last 100 years, 1922-2021. For each rank and sex, the table shows the name and the number of occurrences of that name. These time-tested popular names were taken from a universe that includes 177,238,032 male births and 172,053,794 female births.

Please note that popular names listed below are not necessarily consistently popular in every year. For example, the name James, ranked as the most popular male name overthe last 100 years, has been ranked as low as number 19. Similarly, the most popular female name in the table, Mary, ranked as low as 133.

Administrative efficiency refers to how well health systems reduce documentation (paperwork) and other bureaucratic tasks that patients and clinicians frequently face during care. The top performers on the administrative efficiency domain are Norway, Australia, New Zealand, and the U.K. (Exhibit 1). The U.S. ranks last.

The U.S. ranks last overall on the health care outcomes domain (Exhibit 1). On nine of the 10 component measures, U.S. performance is lowest among the countries (Appendix 8), including having the highest infant mortality rate (5.7 deaths per 1,000 live births) and lowest life expectancy at age 60 (23.1 years). The U.S. ranks last on the mortality measures included in this report, with the exception of 30-day in-hospital mortality following stroke. The U.S. rate of preventable mortality (177 deaths per 100,000 population) is more than double the best-performing country, Switzerland (83 deaths per 100,000).

For example, when used with a data source containing a large table with 1 million records, Last will be subject to the non-delegation limit and will not return the last record of the entire data source. Likewise, using Index to request a record in the middle of 1 million records will result in an error because the index is out of range based on the non-delegation limit.

You can view last accessed information for IAM using the AWS Management Console, AWS CLI, or AWS API. Last accessed information includes information about some actions that were last accessed for Amazon EC2, IAM, Lambda, and Amazon S3. For more information about last accessed information, see Refining permissions in AWS using last accessed information.

Before you view the access information for a resource in IAM, make sure you understand the reporting period, reported entities, and the evaluated policy types for your information. For more details, see Things to know about last accessed information.

(Optional) In the Service column of the table, choose Amazon EC2, AWS Identity and Access Management, AWS Lambda, or Amazon S3 to view a list of management actions that IAM entities have attempted to access. You can view the AWS Region and a timestamp that shows when someone last attempted to perform the action.

The Last accessed column is displayed for services and Amazon EC2, IAM, Lambda, and Amazon S3 management actions. Review the following possible results that are returned in this column. These results vary depending on whether a service or action is allowed, was accessed, and whether it is tracked by AWS for last accessed information.

The number of days since the service or action was used in the tracking period. The tracking period for services is for the last 400 days. The tracking period for Amazon S3 actions started on April 12, 2020. The tracking period for Amazon EC2, IAM, and Lambda actions started on April 7, 2021. To learn more about the tracking start dates for each AWS Region, see Where AWS tracks last accessed information.

You can use the AWS CLI to retrieve information about the last time that an IAM resource was used to attempt to access AWS services and Amazon S3, Amazon EC2, IAM, and Lambda actions. An IAM resource can be a user, user group, role, or policy.

Generate a report. The request must include the ARN of the IAM resource (user, user group, role, or policy) for which you want a report. You can specify the level of granularity that you want to generate in the report to view access details for either services or both services and actions. The request returns a job-id that you can then use in the get-service-last-accessed-details and get-service-last-accessed-details-with-entities operations to monitor the job-status until the job is complete.

Learn more about the entities that used user group or policy permissions in an attempt to access a specific service. This operation returns a list of entities with each entity's ARN, ID, name, path, type (user or role), and when they last attempted to access the service. You can also use this operation for users and roles, but it only returns information about that entity.

You can use the AWS API to retrieve information about the last time that an IAM resource was used to attempt to access AWS services and Amazon S3, Amazon EC2, IAM, and Lambda actions. An IAM resource can be a user, user group, role, or policy. You can specify the level of granularity to generate in the report to view details for either services or both services and actions.

Employers are not required by federal law to give former employees their final paycheck immediately. Some states, however, may require immediate payment. If the regular payday for the last pay period an employee worked has passed and the employee has not been paid, contact the Department of Labor's Wage and Hour Division or the state labor department.

The Last Plastic Straw is a project of Plastic Pollution Coalition. Did you know that over 500,000,000 plastic straws are used each day in the United States? In only the past twenty years, people have come to expect plastic straws in every drink, in an example of extreme waste being generated for minimal convenience. These short-lived tools are usually dropped into a garbage can with no further thought, instantly becoming a source of plastic pollution.

Jackie Nuñez, Founder & Program Manager, The Last Plastic Straw, and featured in the short documentary STRAWS, will be hosting the online discussions, along with other Plastic Pollution Coalition staff.

The goal of each online discussion is to help students craft individual or group projects to reduce single-use plastic pollution. These ACTION projects can be individual, in their home, in their community, anywhere that makes sense for you and your students right now.

This video shows why plastic pollution is detrimental to marine life and why single-use plastics, such as drinking straws, are one of the most useless items made out of plastic, and destructive if they end up in our oceans. 041b061a72


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