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The Ultimate Guide to Afro Cuban Rhythms For Drum Set by Frank Malabe



Afro Cuban Rhythms For Drum Set By Frank Malabe Pdf 13




If you are a drummer who wants to learn more about the rich and diverse musical traditions of Cuba, you might be interested in a book called Afro Cuban Rhythms For Drum Set by Frank Malabe. This book is a comprehensive guide to the history, theory, and practice of Afro Cuban drumming, with over 100 examples and exercises that cover various styles and patterns. In this article, we will review the book and explain why it is a valuable resource for drummers of all levels and backgrounds.




Afro Cuban Rhythms For Drum Set By Frank Malabe Pdf 13



Introduction




What are Afro Cuban rhythms?




Afro Cuban rhythms are the musical expressions of the African diaspora in Cuba, influenced by the Spanish colonial culture and the indigenous peoples of the island. Afro Cuban rhythms are based on complex polyrhythms that combine different layers of percussion, melody, and harmony. Some of the most common instruments used in Afro Cuban music are the congas, bongos, timbales, claves, maracas, cowbells, guiro, and piano.


Who is Frank Malabe?




Frank Malabe was a renowned percussionist, educator, and author who specialized in Afro Cuban music. He was born in Puerto Rico in 1948 and moved to New York City in 1967, where he became part of the Latin jazz scene. He played with many famous artists such as Eddie Palmieri, Tito Puente, Mongo Santamaria, Dizzy Gillespie, and Chick Corea. He also taught at Berklee College of Music and wrote several books on percussion, including Afro Cuban Rhythms For Drum Set, which he co-authored with Bob Weiner in 1990.


Why is this book important for drummers?




This book is important for drummers because it provides a comprehensive and systematic approach to learning Afro Cuban rhythms on the drum set. It covers the historical and cultural background of each style, the notation system used to write the rhythms, the clave concept that organizes the rhythmic structure, and the exercises and examples that demonstrate how to apply the rhythms to the drum set. The book also includes a CD with audio tracks that accompany each exercise and example.


Main Body




How to use the book




The notation system




The book uses a standard drum notation system that indicates the notes for each drum or cymbal on a staff. The book also uses symbols to represent different sounds or techniques, such as accents, ghost notes, rim shots, cross sticks, open or closed hi-hats, etc. The book explains each symbol and how to produce the corresponding sound on the drum set.


The clave concept




The clave concept is one of the most important aspects of Afro Cuban music. The clave is a two-bar rhythmic pattern that serves as the foundation for all other instruments and parts. There are two main types of clave: the son clave and the rumba clave, each with a 3-2 or 2-3 variation. The book shows how to play the clave on different drums or cymbals, and how to align the other rhythms with the clave.


The exercises and examples




The book contains over 100 exercises and examples that cover various Afro Cuban styles and patterns, such as son, mambo, cha-cha-cha, bolero, guaguanco, mozambique, songo, merengue, and more. Each exercise and example has a written explanation, a notation, and an audio track. The book also provides tips and suggestions on how to practice and improve the rhythms.


The benefits of learning Afro Cuban rhythms




Developing coordination and independence




Learning Afro Cuban rhythms can help drummers develop their coordination and independence skills, as they have to play different parts with each limb simultaneously. For example, they have to keep the clave with one hand, the bass drum with one foot, the cowbell or hi-hat with the other hand, and the snare drum or tom-tom with the other foot. This can challenge and enhance their ability to control and synchronize their movements.


Expanding musical vocabulary and creativity




Learning Afro Cuban rhythms can also help drummers expand their musical vocabulary and creativity, as they can explore different sounds, textures, and dynamics. For example, they can use different drums or cymbals to create contrast or emphasis, they can vary the intensity or volume of each part to create tension or release, they can add or subtract notes to create variation or complexity, etc. This can enrich their musical expression and communication.


Exploring different styles and genres




Learning Afro Cuban rhythms can also help drummers explore different styles and genres of music, as they can apply the rhythms to various musical contexts. For example, they can use Afro Cuban rhythms to play jazz, rock, pop, funk, hip-hop, or any other style that they like. They can also learn from other drummers who have incorporated Afro Cuban rhythms into their playing, such as Steve Gadd, Dave Weckl, Horacio Hernandez, Antonio Sanchez, etc. This can broaden their musical horizons and opportunities.


The challenges of learning Afro Cuban rhythms




Understanding the cultural context




One of the challenges of learning Afro Cuban rhythms is understanding the cultural context behind them. Afro Cuban music is not just a collection of notes and beats; it is a reflection of the history, identity, and spirituality of the people who created it. Afro Cuban music is rooted in African traditions that were brought to Cuba by enslaved people who resisted oppression and preserved their culture. Afro Cuban music is also influenced by Spanish colonialism that imposed its language, religion, and social norms. Afro Cuban music is also shaped by the indigenous peoples of Cuba who contributed their own musical elements. Therefore, learning Afro Cuban rhythms requires learning about the cultural background and meaning of each style and pattern.


Mastering the subtleties and nuances




Another challenge of learning Afro Cuban rhythms is mastering the subtleties and nuances that make them sound authentic and expressive. Afro Cuban music is not just a matter of playing the right notes at the right time; it is also a matter of playing them with the right feel, groove, swing, accentuation, phrasing, etc. Afro Cuban music is based on oral tradition that relies on listening and imitating rather than reading and analyzing. Therefore, learning Afro Cuban rhythms requires listening to a lot of recordings and live performances by master percussionists and drummers who have mastered the art of playing Afro Cuban music.


Finding authentic sources and mentors




A third challenge of learning Afro Cuban rhythms is finding authentic sources and mentors who can teach them correctly and effectively. Afro Cuban music is not widely taught in formal educational settings; most schools and colleges do not offer courses or programs on Afro Cuban music. Moreover, not all books or videos on Afro Cuban music are accurate or reliable; some may contain errors or misinformation that can mislead or confuse learners. Therefore, learning Afro Cuban rhythms requires finding reputable sources and mentors who have extensive knowledge and experience in playing and teaching Afro Cuban music.


Conclusion




Summary of the main points




audio tracks that accompany each exercise and example. Learning Afro Cuban rhythms can help drummers develop their coordination and independence skills, expand their musical vocabulary and creativity, and explore different styles and genres of music. However, learning Afro Cuban rhythms also poses some challenges, such as understanding the cultural context behind them, mastering the subtleties and nuances that make them sound authentic and expressive, and finding authentic sources and mentors who can teach them correctly and effectively. Therefore, drummers who want to learn Afro Cuban rhythms should approach them with respect, curiosity, and dedication.


Recommendations for further study




If you are interested in learning more about Afro Cuban rhythms and music, here are some recommendations for further study:


  • Listen to more recordings and live performances by Afro Cuban percussionists and drummers, such as Chano Pozo, Mongo Santamaria, Candido Camero, Ray Barretto, Tata Guines, Giovanni Hidalgo, Pedrito Martinez, etc.



  • Watch more videos and documentaries that showcase Afro Cuban music and culture, such as Calle 54, Buena Vista Social Club, Cuba Feliz, Rhythms of the World: Cuba, etc.



  • Read more books and articles that explore the history and theory of Afro Cuban music, such as The Music of Santeria: Traditional Rhythms of the Bata Drums by John Amira and Steven Cornelius, Cuban Fire: The Story of Salsa and Latin Jazz by Isabelle Leymarie, Sounding Salsa: Performing Latin Music in New York City by Christopher Washburne, etc.



  • Take more classes or workshops that teach Afro Cuban percussion and drumming, either online or in person. Some online platforms that offer Afro Cuban drumming courses are CongaChops.com, CongaMasterClass.com, DrummerCafe.com, etc. Some in-person instructors that teach Afro Cuban drumming are Michael Spiro, Mark Walker, Bobby Sanabria, etc.



  • Join or form a band or ensemble that plays Afro Cuban music or incorporates Afro Cuban rhythms into other styles of music. Playing with other musicians can help you improve your timing, listening, and improvisation skills. You can also learn from each other and have fun.



FAQs




Here are some frequently asked questions about Afro Cuban rhythms for drum set:


  • What is the difference between son clave and rumba clave?



Son clave and rumba clave are two main types of clave patterns that are used in Afro Cuban music. Son clave is more common in styles such as son, mambo, cha-cha-cha, salsa, etc. Rumba clave is more common in styles such as rumba, guaguanco, yambu, columbia, etc. The difference between son clave and rumba clave is in the placement of the last note of the 3-side. In son clave, the last note is on the fourth beat of the first bar. In rumba clave, the last note is on the fourth eighth-note of the first bar.


  • What is the difference between 3-2 and 2-3 clave?



3-2 and 2-3 clave are two variations of the same clave pattern that are used in Afro Cuban music. The difference between 3-2 and 2-3 clave is in which bar starts the pattern. In 3-2 clave, the pattern starts with the bar that has three notes (the 3-side). In 2-3 clave, the pattern starts with the bar that has two notes (the 2-side). The choice of 3-2 or 2-3 clave depends on the melody or harmony of the song.


  • What is the difference between cascara and campana?



Cascara and campana are two terms that are used to describe the rhythm that is played on the shell or rim of a timbale or a cowbell in Afro Cuban music. Cascara means "shell" in Spanish and refers to the timbale rim. Campana means "bell" in Spanish and refers to the cowbell. The rhythm of cascara and campana is similar but not identical. Cascara has more notes and accents than campana. Campana has fewer notes and accents than cascara.


  • What is the difference between tumbao and montuno?



Tumbao and montuno are two terms that are used to describe the rhythm that is played on the bass or the piano in Afro Cuban music. Tumbao means "groove" or "swing" in Spanish and refers to the bass rhythm. Montuno means "mountain" or "hill" in Spanish and refers to the piano rhythm. The rhythm of tumbao and montuno is similar but not identical. Tumbao usually plays on the first and third beats of each bar, with some variations and syncopations. Montuno usually plays on the second and fourth beats of each bar, with some variations and syncopations.


  • What is the difference between songo and mozambique?



Songo and mozambique are two modern styles of Afro Cuban music that were developed in the 1960s and 1970s. Songo was created by the Cuban band Los Van Van, led by Juan Formell. Mozambique was created by the Cuban percussionist Pedro Izquierdo, also known as Pello el Afrokan. The difference between songo and mozambique is in the instrumentation and the rhythmic structure. Songo uses a drum set, congas, timbales, cowbells, and other percussion instruments. Mozambique uses a drum set, congas, bongos, bells, whistles, and other percussion instruments. Songo is based on a 4/4 time signature with a syncopated clave pattern. Mozambique is based on a 2/4 time signature with a straight clave pattern.


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